Diplomatic Representation in US:
Chief of Mission: Dino Patti Djalal
Embassy: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone:  (202) 775-5200 through 5207
FAX:  (202) 775-5365
Consulates General are in:
New York 5 East 68th Street,
New York, NY 10021,
tel. 212-879-0600/0615; FAX: 212-570-6206;
Los Angeles 3457 Wilshire Blvd.,
Los Angeles, CA 90010;
tel. 213-383-5126; FAX: 213-487-3971;
Houston 10900 Richmond Ave.,
Houston, TX 77042;
tel. 713-785-1691; FAX: 713-780-9644.
San Francisco 1111 Columbus Avenue,
San Francisco, CA 94133;
tel. 415-474-9571; FAX: 415-441-4320;
Chicago 540 N. LaSalle Street, Floor 6
Chicago, IL 60610;
Tel. (312) 595-1777; FAX: (312) 595-9952.
US Diplomatic Representation:
Ambassador: Scot Marciel
Embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
Mailing Address: APO AP 96520
Telephone: (62-21) 3435-9000
Fax: (62-21) 385-7189
Embassy and Consulate Web Sites for Indonesia
U.S. Embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia
Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia - Washington, D.C.
Embassy of Indonesia in Ottawa, Canada
Embassy of Indonesia in Helsinki, Finland
Since independence in 1945, Indonesia has espoused a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers. Indonesian foreign policy under the "New Order" government of President Suharto moved away from the stridently anti-Western, anti-American posturing that characterized the latter part of the Soekarno era. Following Suharto's ouster in 1998, Indonesia's Presidents have preserved the broad outlines of Suharto's independent, moderate foreign policy. The traumatic separation of East Timor from Indonesia after an August 1999 East Timor referendum, and subsequent events in East Timor (now Timor-Leste) and West Timor, strained Indonesia's relations with the international community.
A cornerstone of Indonesia's contemporary foreign policy is its participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), of which it was a founding member in 1967 with Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines. Since then, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, and Cambodia also have joined ASEAN. While organized to promote common economic, social, and cultural goals, ASEAN acquired a security dimension after Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in 1979. The security policy aspect of ASEAN expanded with the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Forum in 1994, in which 22 countries participate, including the United States.
Indonesia also was one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and has taken moderate positions in its councils. As NAM Chairman in 1992-95, Indonesia led NAM positions away from the rhetoric of North-South confrontation, advocating instead the broadening of North-South cooperation in the area of development. In May 2005, the Yudhoyono administration, in a major effort to reinvigorate its leadership of the NAM and reset the movement's future course, hosted an Asia-Africa Summit to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the NAM in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955. Indonesia continues to be a prominent leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, and hosted the NAM Ministerial meeting in 2011. Indonesia sees itself as a bridge-builder between the West and foreign policy views of the NAM and Group of 77 (G-77) that are contrary to those of the United States.
While not an Islamic state, Indonesia has the world's largest Muslim population and is a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). It carefully considers the interests of Islamic solidarity in its foreign policy decisions while providing a moderating influence in the OIC. President Wahid, for example, pursued better relations with Israel; Foreign Minister Noer Hassan Wirajuda participated in the November 2007 Middle East peace conference in Annapolis.
After Soekarno’s fall from power in 1966, Indonesia welcomed and maintained close relations with the donor community, particularly the United States, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan, through the Intergovernmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI) and its successor, the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), which have provided substantial foreign economic assistance.
Indonesia has been a strong supporter of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. Largely through the efforts of President Suharto at the 1994 meeting in Bogor, Indonesia, APEC members agreed to implement free trade in the region by 2010 for industrialized economies and 2020 for developing economies.
In 2008, Indonesia finalized its Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with Japan, a significant trade partner and Indonesia's biggest foreign investor. The agreement is Indonesia's first bilateral free trade deal and exempts Indonesia from 90% of Japanese import duties.
President Yudhoyono has sought a higher international profile for Indonesia. In March 2006, Yudhoyono traveled to Burma to discuss democratic reform and visited several Middle Eastern countries in April and May 2006. Yudhoyono delivered a major speech in Saudi Arabia, encouraging the Muslim world to embrace globalization and technology for greater social and economic progress. In November 2006, Indonesia sent about 1,000 peacekeeping troops to southern Lebanon to be part of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and replaced those troops with a second contingent a year later. In 2007 and 2008, Indonesia held a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council. President Yudhoyono has also developed strategic partnerships with several countries, including the Netherlands.
The United States has important economic, commercial, and security interests in Indonesia. The country remains a linchpin of regional security due to its strategic location astride a number of key international maritime straits, particularly the Malacca Strait. Relations between Indonesia and the U.S. are positive and have advanced since the election of President Yudhoyono in October 2004. The U.S. played a role in Indonesian independence in the late 1940s and appreciated Indonesia's role as an anti-communist bulwark after Soekarno during the Cold War. Cooperative relations are maintained today, although no formal security treaties bind the two countries. The United States and Indonesia share the common goal of maintaining peace, security, and stability in the region and engaging in a dialogue on threats to regional security. Cooperation between the U.S. and Indonesia on counterterrorism has increased steadily since 2002, as terrorist attacks in Bali (October 2002 and October 2005), Jakarta (August 2003 and September 2004), and other regional locations demonstrated the presence of terrorist organizations in Indonesia. The United States has welcomed Indonesia's contributions to regional security, especially its leading role in helping restore democracy in Cambodia, mediating a territorial dispute between Thailand and Cambodia, and mediating territorial disputes in the South China Sea.
In November 2008, President Yudhoyono suggested the U.S. and Indonesia work together to build a comprehensive partnership. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s February 2009 visit to Indonesia helped move that partnership forward in a number of key areas. Since her visit, bilateral cooperation on education, climate change, science and technology, health, and other issues has continued to progress. President Obama launched the U.S.-Indonesia Comprehensive Partnership in November 2010.
The U.S. is committed to consolidating Indonesia's democratic transition and supports the territorial integrity of the country. Nonetheless, there are friction points in the bilateral political relationship. These conflicts have centered primarily on human rights, as well as on differences in foreign policy. The U.S. Congress cut off grant military training assistance through International Military Education and Training (IMET) to Indonesia in 1992 in response to a November 12, 1991, incident in East Timor when Indonesian security forces shot and killed East Timorese demonstrators. This restriction was partially lifted in 1995. Military assistance programs were again suspended, however, in the aftermath of the violence and destruction in East Timor following the August 30, 1999, referendum favoring independence.
Separately, the U.S. had urged the Indonesian Government to identify and bring to justice the perpetrators of the August 2002 ambush murders of two U.S. teachers near Timika in Papua province. In 2005, the Secretary of State certified that Indonesian cooperation in the murder investigation had met the conditions set by Congress, enabling the resumption of full IMET. Eight suspects were arrested in January 2006, and in November 2006 seven were convicted.
In November 2005, the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, under authority delegated by the Secretary of State, exercised a National Security Waiver provision provided in the FY 2006 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act (FOAA) to remove congressional restrictions on Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and lethal defense articles. These actions represented a reestablishment of normalized military relations, allowing the U.S. to provide greater support for Indonesian efforts to reform the military, increase its ability to respond to disasters and participate in global peacekeeping operations, and promote regional stability.
Regarding worker rights, Indonesia was the target of several petitions filed under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) legislation arguing that Indonesia did not meet internationally recognized labor standards. A formal GSP review was suspended in February 1994 without terminating GSP benefits for Indonesia. Since 1998, Indonesia has ratified all eight International Labor Organization core conventions on protecting internationally recognized worker rights and allowed trade unions to organize. However, enforcement of labor laws and protection of workers' rights remain inconsistent and weak in some areas. Indonesia's slow economic recovery has pushed more workers into the informal sector, which reduces legal protection and could create conditions for increases in child labor.
About 60,000 Indonesians seek U.S. nonimmigrant visas each year; the eligibility rate is in the 80% range. Most applicants are intending visitors, and others are ship’s crew (12,000), students (3,500), and government officials (2,000). About 1,000 Indonesians immigrate to the U.S. annually; most are newlywed spouses or family members of U.S. citizens. About 15,000 Americans live in Indonesia, mostly in Jakarta on 3-4 year business assignments, but there are 1,000-2,000 Americans retired on Bali, either as permanent or part-time residents. Indonesia treats foreigners relatively well; however, criminal penalties for narcotics or religious offenses are very harsh. The lack of adequate, reliable infrastructure and public services, and a low level of public health, are cautionary notes to Americans coming to Indonesia.
Development Assistance From the United States to Indonesia
The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and its predecessor agencies have provided development assistance to Indonesia since 1950. Initial assistance focused on the most urgent needs, including food aid, infrastructure rehabilitation, health care, and training. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, a time of great economic growth in Indonesia, USAID played a major role in helping the country achieve self-sufficiency in rice production and in reducing the birthrate. USAID’s Program Strategy for Indonesia for 2009-2014 responds to Indonesia’s remarkable democratic transformation of the last decade and its progress toward becoming a strong, prosperous, and inclusive nation. The strategy calls upon U.S. and Indonesian resources to diminish Indonesian poverty and mitigate global threats. USAID assistance programs focus on basic and higher education, democratic and decentralized governance, economic growth, health, the environment, and renewable energy. USAID programs actively support the objectives of the U.S.-Indonesia Comprehensive Partnership signed in November 2010 by President Obama and President Yudhoyono.
Supporting Economic Growth: While Indonesia is firmly a middle-income country, much still needs to be done to assure sustainable economic growth, improve employment, and strengthen food security. USAID focuses on programs for improving the policy environment, strengthening the value chains (improving the production and distribution processes) of select high-value crops, and building the Government of Indonesia’s capacity to secure its potential. The resulting increases in production and economic growth will generate substantial employment, raise incomes, and reduce poverty.
Support for Economic Analysis and Policy Reform: Indonesia’s financial system lags behind those of its regional peers; one of the main constraints to sustainable economic growth in Indonesia is its lack of a robust financial sector. USAID programs work to improve the technical capacity of key personnel of the Government of Indonesia to understand, draft, and support reforms in the economic sector. Additionally, USAID programs are designed to build the capacity of private sector financial institutions to increase access to services for millions of underserved Indonesians. USAID objectives include improved financial sector regulation, support for pro-poor, pro-farmer agriculture regulations, and increased national and international investments. Activities include, but are not limited to, providing U.S. university training for key Government of Indonesia personnel, promoting the expansion of rural financial services, including mobile banking, and promoting trade linkages and private sector alliances.
Support for Agricultural Development: Agriculture is key to the economy of Indonesia. It accounts for 43% of total employment and directly contributes 15% to the GDP. Despite its importance and role in the national economy, national food production is still insufficient to meet the food security needs of Indonesia’s citizens. USAID programs address the problem of food insecurity in several ways. They seek to improve the value chains for key high-value crops; introduce and disseminate agricultural biotechnology and improve management practices, and build the capacity of public and private institutions.
Agricultural Value Chains--High-value agriculture products have real potential to drive growth, employment, and incomes. In Indonesia, the competitiveness of this sector is constrained by low investment, inadequate infrastructure, and underdeveloped agribusiness practices. USAID has two programs that are working in high-value agriculture. A 5-year, $20 million agricultural market development project will continue USAID’s prior work in developing Indonesia’s agricultural sector through strong, well-developed value chains. While a preceding program reached more than 190,000 individual farmers, 3,700 producer groups, and 200 agribusinesses, the new program will work with over 250,000 participant farmers on three value chains: high-value horticulture (including vegetables, fruits and flowers), cocoa, and coffee. USAID is also providing additional support for agricultural development in Papua, one of Indonesia’s least developed provinces. A new program there will work to develop markets and value chains in the cocoa, fisheries, and small livestock sectors.
Biotechnology and Improved Management Practices--Biotechnology offers much-needed opportunities to increase yields while decreasing labor and input costs for the farmer, including money spent on pesticides and fertilizers. It offers great opportunities in particular for poor farmers. One USAID-supported program is working to develop a locally-adapted variety of Golden Rice, which will provide beta-carotene, combating a micronutrient deficiency that often leads to blindness and other health complications in rural areas. Another program is developing a potato resistant to late blight. Altogether, the adoption of biotechnology-enhanced varieties and improved farming practices increases yields, improves farmer incomes and livelihoods, and is better for the environment. Additionally, USAID programs support and build the capacity of the Government of Indonesia’s National Council on Biosafety, which regulates how biotechnology-enhanced crops are introduced and grown in Indonesia.
Capacity Building: To fully achieve its potential, Indonesia must build its cadre of trained professionals in key areas, notably economics and agriculture. USAID programs establish vital linkages between U.S. and Indonesian universities, and support the training of dozens of Indonesia’s future economic and agronomic leaders each year in U.S. land-grant universities. These students will return to Indonesia fully trained in their professions and better equipped to steer Indonesia to a more prosperous future.
Improving Education: USAID is managing a $157 million, 5-year Presidential Education Initiative to energize and improve the quality of education in Indonesia’s state-run religious and public schools. The approach has emphasized critical thinking and reasoning skills, lively lessons, engaged teachers, and interested parents to promote tolerance, employment readiness, and student-centered learning for a participatory democracy. Since the start of the Presidential Initiative, more than 1,476 schools, 57,400 educators, and 480,000 students have benefited directly from U.S. Government assistance to improve teaching and learning, better school management, and increase community participation. At both the national and local levels this Presidential Initiative has ignited donor and Indonesian interest in joint coordination and cooperation to extend USAID practices across the far-flung archipelago. The initiative has leveraged more than $2 million from non-U.S. Government sources to support activities being implemented in 26,170 new schools, laying the base for a more widely established and enduring legacy. By 2012, the program is expected to reach 27,000 schools, promoting ownership and dissemination of new methods for delivering basic education assistance directly to the local level where it can be more effectively and accountably targeted.
Decentralized Basic Education: As the main component of the Indonesia Presidential Education Initiative, USAID’s basic education program focuses on improving the quality and relevance of education in primary and junior secondary schools. Through technical assistance and training, the program has three goals: to assist local governments and communities to manage education services more effectively; to enhance teaching and learning to improve student performance in key subjects such as math, science, and reading; and to ensure that Indonesia’s youth gain more relevant life and work skills to better compete for jobs in the modern economy. USAID modules and approaches have been well received by the Government of Indonesia and are replicated to wider areas. Approximately 21% of total districts replicate one or more program components, using funds contributed by local government, schools, and private institutions. The results have been used to formulate policies in the decentralized system. Partnerships of three U.S. universities--the University of Pittsburgh, Florida State University, and the University of Massachusetts--with 14 Indonesian universities are enabling teachers participating in the program to receive academic credit for their work and helping them meet new Government of Indonesia recertification requirements. USAID also promotes the use of information technology for education; the importance of early childhood education; in-service teacher training; and non-formal work and life skills. A new program in Papua and West Papua will increase access to better-quality education by providing support to local government and non-governmental organizations.
Opportunities for Vulnerable Children: This program prepares the foundation for an inclusive education system by focusing on educational rights and needs to serve children with visual impairment (blindness and low vision) and other disabilities. These activities have led to a substantial increase in the number of children with special needs attending school and increases in the availability and quality of inclusive education services. Replicable models have been implemented in Aceh, South Sulawesi, and Central Java. A university-level program is being developed to equip new teachers with effective teaching strategies and clear understanding of children with special needs in partnership with the Ministry of National Education (MONE), local universities, disabled persons organizations (DPOs), and the Hilton Perkins International.
Sesame Street Indonesia/Jalan Sesama: In partnership with the Sesame Workshop, USAID continues to support an Indonesian co-production of the renowned Sesame Street television show. Indonesia’s “Jalan Sesama” is one of the largest partnerships between USAID and the Sesame Workshop. By watching “Jalan Sesama” millions of Indonesian children are better equipped to start and stay in school. The program went on the air in 2007 and more than 3 million Indonesian children have viewed the broadcast. The show is currently ranked second in its time slot.
Higher Education: Current higher education programs include four partnerships created between U.S. and Indonesian universities in support of national development priorities: Columbia University and the University of Indonesia have partnered in the creation of a Child Protection Center; the University of California and Udayana University will conduct joint biodiversity research; Texas A&M’s Borlaug Institute will collaborate with the Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB), Universitas Udayana Bali, and Sam Ratulangi University (North Sulawesi) for implementation of a tropical plant curriculum project; and Harvard University’s School of Public Health will team with the University of Indonesia’s SEAMEO Regional Center for Community Nutrition, Andalas University, University of Mataram, and the Helen Keller International/Indonesia on a program to enhance training in public health and applied research. The tripartite partnership between USAID, the Government of Aceh Province, and Chevron led to the establishment of Aceh Polytechnic, an institution which provides quality education in applied technology fields such as information technology and electrical engineering that are in high demand in the region.
In keeping with the Presidents' joint higher education initiative announced in June 2010, USAID is initiating three new ventures in Indonesia. New activities include the Higher Education Leadership and Management Program, which will help reinvigorate the learning environment and administration of tertiary education. An additional $17 million will be used to expand the number and depth of partnerships between Indonesian and U.S. universities. Finally, a special investment will engage the resources of higher education institutions in improving the quality of math, science, and technology instruction throughout Indonesia's elementary schools.
Effective Democratic Governance: USAID is partnering with Indonesian communities, government, and civil-society organizations to meet the challenge of making government deliver. Through targeted investments, USAID is providing assistance in five areas: anti-corruption; rule of law; local governance and service delivery; effective representation by legislatures, civil society, and political parties; and support for peace and a democratic culture.
Justice Sector Programs: USAID is supporting the Government of Indonesia to reform its justice sector in two programs. One program will sustain and deepen reforms in the justice sector to produce a more accountable and higher-performing justice system. Another program will strengthen the professionalism, skills, and integrity of Indonesia’s justice sector professionals by supporting Indonesia’s legal education system and the capacity of civil society to advocate for justice sector reform.
Strengthening Integrity and Accountability in Government: Two other democratic governance programs will contribute to good governance and economic growth in Indonesia by strengthening integrity and accountability in government agencies, principally at the national level, and supporting Indonesian-led, citizen-based efforts to strengthen integrity, promote accountability, and combat corruption. A grant to Kemitraan, an Indonesian civil society organization (CSO), is the first in a series of five planned direct grants to local CSOs.
Improving Representative Government: The two overarching objectives are to improve citizen representation by increasing the inclusiveness and effectiveness of groups, networks, and institutions that seek to express people’s views, interests, and aspirations to government; and to improve the responsiveness, effectiveness, and transparency of legislative processes.
Strengthening Representative Parties: USAID is supporting Indonesia’s efforts to foster more policy-oriented and representative political parties whose members are more effective public servants. This program is working to foster more representative and inclusive parties; strengthen the ability of parties to develop, articulate and advocate policies that are representative of their constituents’ views; and support timely and inclusive efforts to create more democratic and credible electoral processes.
Local Governance: USAID has been a key supporter of strengthened decentralization and improved local governance in Indonesia for almost a decade. The program will build on the successes and lessons learned from a project recently concluded with the Government of Indonesia to improve the delivery of public services by Indonesian local governments. More effective and efficient delivery of public services in targeted areas of Indonesia will improve citizen welfare and overall quality of life--goals at the center of the U.S.-Indonesia Comprehensive Partnership.
Support for Peace Building: USAID supports Indonesia’s democratic consolidation by funding activities that mitigate the sources and effects of past communal and regional conflict. The program builds local capacity to mitigate conflict as a critical step in achieving sustained peace and stability.
Southeast Asia-U.S. Partnership of Civil Society Organizations: Indonesia’s vibrant yet stable multi-party democracy stands as an example for other countries in various stages of democratic development to emulate--both within and outside of Southeast Asia. This effort is supportive of the Government of Indonesia’s vision for its regional and global role, as manifested in the Bali Democracy Forum (BDF). The objective is to encourage Indonesian CSOs to form partnerships to use their expertise and experiences in developing and implementing a broad range of projects outside Indonesia in democracy, governance, and human rights in cooperation with U.S. and Southeast Asian CSOs.
Improving Management of Natural Resources: USAID supports the improvement of natural resource management and water and sanitation. Programs aim to protect forest biodiversity with a focus on orangutan habitat, and to improve the management of forests and watersheds. USAID's 2009-2014 strategy broadened the scope of USAID assistance to include marine ecosystems and clean energy as well as forest management and water and sanitation services. Climate change adaptation and mitigation and disaster risk reduction are cross-cutting themes in the new strategy.
Improved Management of Forest Ecosystems: USAID supports the Government of Indonesia’s strategies for climate change, sustainable forest management, and low carbon emissions development, including its commitments within the UN REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) initiative. USAID's integrated approach addresses three areas: developing sustainable forest management practices in targeted landscapes; improving forest governance, and helping local governments develop spatial planning, climate change adaptation, and low emissions development strategies; and supporting development of local economies. Activities will occur in eight sites on Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Papua, including at least 1.7 million hectares of orangutan habitat.
Improved Management of Marine Ecosystems: USAID supports the Government of Indonesia’s leadership in implementing the Coral Triangle Initiative to develop and sustain marine resources management. The main objectives are to restore and enhance the marine areas so that they are bio-diverse and continue as plentiful sources of food and income for Indonesians; and to prepare natural ecosystems and coastal communities to adapt to climate change and reduce their risks from disasters. The integrated approach addresses five areas: building the capability of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries; strengthening fisheries management; building a network of well-managed marine protected areas; strengthening climate and disaster management capabilities; and reducing illegal and destructive fishing.
Increased Access to Safe Water and Adequate Sanitation: USAID is working with the Government of Indonesia to increase access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation in urban areas. The program will respond to demand for affordable water and adequate sanitation by communities, improve the ability of water utilities and local governments to provide safe water and sanitation services, and help develop policies and financing that will stimulate expansion of services to the urban poor.
Increased Access to Clean Energy: USAID supports the Government of Indonesia’s dual goals of expanding the domestic energy supply to provide modern grid service to 95% of the population and reducing emissions by 41% by 2020. The approach addresses three areas: improving energy sector policy and coordination; increasing development of clean energy projects; and increasing the opportunities for clean energy while raising awareness of its benefits.
Increasing Climate Resilience and Reducing Disaster Risks: USAID supports activities that combine climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in some of the most vulnerable areas of Indonesia. Activities will mainly occur at the district and sub-district levels. All projects will begin with vulnerability assessments to identify risks and opportunities. USAID will help strengthen governance in local communities to implement climate change solutions in agriculture, water, natural resource management, and other sectors.
Improved Health for Indonesians: The U.S. Government provides technical assistance to improve the availability and quality of key health services throughout Indonesia. Efforts support maternal, neonatal, and child health, and prevention and control of priority infectious disease threats, such as multi-drug resistant TB, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and avian influenza (AI). The delivery of basic human services at the local level is critical to the health of Indonesians. Under Indonesia’s decentralization law, local governments are responsible for the delivery of health care, water, and sanitation. To help improve the health and quality of life for vulnerable populations, USAID supports an integrated program that strengthens the capacity of local governments and partners to improve access to and quality of health services and prevention efforts in the public sector, private sector, and communities.
Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health: USAID maternal and child health programs in Indonesia significantly increased their coverage of care in FY 2008, in some cases doubling the number of women and children who benefited. These programs helped 595,000 women safely deliver babies in the presence of skilled birth attendants; provided essential care to 391,000 newborns; treated 1.2 million cases of child diarrhea; and provided 469,000 children under age five with nutrition services.
USAID is currently working to support the Government of Indonesia’s goals to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. With some of the highest maternal mortality rates in Southeast Asia, complications such as bleeding and convulsions during deliveries are the major causes of maternal deaths. Asphyxia, or breathing difficulties, and infections account for many deaths in newborn babies. USAID also supports the use of zinc to improve children’s recovery from diarrhea. Support for the global goal of eradicating polio continues, with a focus on technical assistance for surveillance.
Avian and Pandemic Influenza: Indonesia has the world’s highest number of confirmed human avian influenza (AI) infections and the highest fatality rate (82%). As of May 13, 2011, the World Health Organization had reported 177 confirmed human infections and 146 deaths, comprising 32% of cases worldwide. The highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 (AI) is widespread in Indonesia. There is additional concern that a new highly transmissible strain of influenza could emerge from Indonesia due to the circulation of H1N1, seasonal influenza, and AI. USAID supports a range of efforts aimed at improving animal and public health to prevent and control avian and pandemic influenza in partnership with the Government of Indonesia and other stakeholders, including the private sector. USAID activities strengthen pandemic preparedness, increase awareness and change risky behaviors at the community level, enhance disease surveillance and response, strengthen laboratories' capacity, and track viral changes to produce novel poultry vaccines.
The majority of human infections occur due to exposure at live-bird markets; therefore USAID supports a cleaning and disinfectant program at the markets and along the poultry value chain, a market surveillance program, and biosecurity activities. A main goal of USAID's program is to improve the case fatality rate and strengthen the health care system to treat acute respiratory infections more efficiently and effectively.
To date, USAID has established animal health surveillance and disease control networks in Indonesia, trained more than 27,000 village volunteers and animal health officers, conducted 235,000 surveillance visits and reported over 10,000 outbreaks of AI, and met with over 5.4 million poultry farmers and community members to prevent and control AI. A joint Indonesia-U.S.-Australian research project has resulted in a new poultry vaccine for Indonesia.
Emerging Pandemic Threat (EPT): Indonesia is also a hotspot for new emerging diseases due to its geography, climate, biodiversity, and close proximity of humans and wildlife. In 2011, USAID launched an Emerging Pandemic Threat (EPT) program in Indonesia to address this threat. The program’s goal is the early identification of and response to dangerous pathogens in animals before they become significant threats to human health. The program will enhance local and national capacity for surveillance, laboratory diagnosis, and field epidemiology in both the animal and human health sectors in Indonesia.
Tuberculosis: Indonesia has approximately 430,000 new TB cases every year, 61,000 deaths annually, and an increase in multi-drug resistant TB. USAID supports strengthening the National Tuberculosis Program response to TB control including multi-drug resistant TB through Public-Private Mix (PPM) hospital-Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) linkages; rollout of international standards of TB care; hard-to-reach populations including prisons, underserved areas, and vulnerable groups; laboratory strengthening; drug management; TB/HIV collaboration; operational research; and community empowerment. USAID support has helped the national TB case detection rate rise from 22% in 2000 to 73% in 2010, with almost all primary health centers and 30% of hospitals implementing DOTS. Over the past 5 years, 10 laboratories were upgraded and renovated to build their capacity to diagnose multi-drug resistant TB.
Malaria: USAID supports integrating prevention of malaria activities into existing maternal and child health programming in Eastern Indonesia. This integrated approach distributes bed nets to prevent malaria, while improving rates of pregnancy checkups. It has increased routine immunization coverage. Through USAID’s malaria prevention program, 157,000 pregnant women received treated bed nets and 1,237 midwives were trained to detect and treat malaria.
HIV/AIDS: There is a concentrated HIV epidemic in most-at-risk groups and a generalized epidemic in Papua. USAID supports behavior change interventions to prevent the spread of HIV and increased access to comprehensive prevention, treatment, care, and support efforts throughout the country. Through USAID community outreach, the HIV/AIDS program has reached 1.7 million people at high risk of HIV infection; 84,600 people have received counseling and testing for HIV; and 132 local organizations have been trained in HIV/AIDS programming.
Neglected Tropical Diseases: Neglected tropical disease is a major source of disability, ill health, and cognitive impairment in Indonesia. Indonesia alone accounts for 10% of the global burden of several of these debilitating diseases. Over 28 million Indonesians are infected with lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) and an estimated 125 million people are at risk. USAID is providing assistance to support Indonesia’s neglected tropical diseases program. This is focused on annual or semi-annual distribution of medicines to affected communities. Most of the drugs would be donated by private pharmaceutical companies, making this a very effective public/private partnership. USAID has supported Indonesia’s Ministry of Health in conducting mass drug administration for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis in 14 districts.
Participant Training: Training has long been a key component of the U.S. Government’s development partnership with Indonesia. USAID continues to support the tradition through this participant training program, which will provide academic degree, short-term technical training and the creation of an alumni association. The participant training program is structured in a way that will help individuals acquire the knowledge, skills, and capacity to support Indonesia’s further development. The program cuts across all five sectors in which USAID works in Indonesia.
Tsunami Reconstruction: The U.S. Government was one of the first donors to respond to the disaster. Through numerous grants to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations, and UN agencies, USAID has helped stabilize the humanitarian situation in Aceh, avert a public health crisis, and provide relief services to survivors. Most of the U.S. tsunami relief programs are now complete, although efforts toward the construction of the Aceh west coast highway continue. The U.S. will remain actively engaged in conflict prevention and resolution efforts in Aceh.
During the early 1960s under Soekarno, Indonesia pursued a policy of “Konfrontasi” toward newly independent Malaysia, characterized by small-scale but bitter fighting against forces sent to defend Malaysian Borneo. Since the late 1960s Indonesia has had peaceful relations with its neighbors. Without a credible external threat in the region, the military historically viewed its primary mission as assuring internal security.
The Indonesian National Police, which had been a branch of the armed forces for many years, was formally separated from the military in April 1999, a process that was completed in July 2000. With 250,000 personnel, the police represent a much smaller portion of the population than in most nations. The police play a central role in responding to the internal threat posed by militant extremists and have seen considerable success in apprehending terrorist suspects.
Indonesia's armed forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, or TNI) total approximately 350,000 members, including the army, navy, marines, and air force. The army is the largest branch with about 280,000 active-duty personnel. Defense spending in the national budget accounts for 1.8% of GDP, but is supplemented by revenue from many military businesses and foundations. Military leaders have said that they wish to transform the military into a professional, external security force, providing domestic support to civilian security forces as necessary. However, given current levels of training, maintenance, and expertise the TNI would not prevail against a modern, determined, and even smaller opponent.
The military historically maintained a prominent role in the nation's political and social affairs. A significant number of cabinet members have had military backgrounds, while active duty and retired military personnel occupied a large number of seats in the parliament. Commanders of the various territorial commands played influential roles in the affairs of their respective regions. The October 2004 inauguration of the national parliament ended the military's formal political role but not its political influence.
Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Deputy Chief of Mission--Ted Osius
Political Counselor--Theodore J. Lyng
Economic Counselor--Peter D. Haas
Management Counselor--Michael C. Mullins
The U.S. Embassy in Indonesia is located at Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta (tel. (62-021) 3435-9000). U.S. mail to the Embassy may be addressed to FPO AP 96520.
To obtain the latest Travel Advisory Information for Indonesia check the U.S. State Department Consular Information Sheet.
Driving U.S Driving Permit accepted
Currency (IDR) Indonesian Rupiah
Electrical 127/230 Volts
Telephones Country Code 62, City Code Jakarta 21, Bandung 22, Surabaya 31
Time: Indonesia spans three time zones:
Bangka, Balitung, Java, West and Central Kalimantan, Madura and Sumatra: GMT + 7 (West), GMT + 8 (Central), GMT + 9 (East).
Bali, Flores, South and East Kalimantan, Lombok, Sulawesi, Sumba, Sumbawa and Timor: GMT + 8.
Aru, Irian Jaya, Kai, Moluccas and Tanimbar: GMT + 9.
Electricity: Generally 220 volts AC, 50Hz, but 110 volts AC, 50Hz, in some rural areas.
Telephone: IDD is available to main cities. Country code: 62 (followed by 22 for Bandung, 21 for Jakarta, 61 for Medan and 31 for Surabaya). Outgoing international code: 00. Many hotel lobbies have public phones which take credit cards and phone cards. State-operated phone booths (WARTEL), which work on a pay-as-you-leave basis, can be found throughout the country. For emergencies, dial 110 (police) or 118 (ambulance for traffic accidents) or 119 (ambulance for general health) or 113 (fire department).
Climate: Tropical climate varying from area to area. The eastern monsoon brings the driest weather (June to September), while the western monsoon brings the main rains (December to March). Rainstorms occur all year. Higher regions are cooler.
Required clothing: Lightweights with rainwear. Warmer clothes are needed for cool evenings and upland areas. Smart clothes such as jackets are required for formal occasions, and it is regarded inappropriate to wear halter-neck tops and shorts anywhere other than the beach or at sports facilities.
Food & Drink: The staple diet for most Indonesians is rice (nasi), which is replaced on some islands with corn, sago, cassava and sweet potatoes. Rice dishes include nais campur, nasi uduk and rasirames. Indonesia’s spices make its local cuisine unique. Specialities include: rijstafel (a Dutch concoction consisting of a variety of meats, fish, vegetables and curries), sate (chunks of beef, fish, pork, chicken or lamb cooked on hot coals and dipped in peanut sauce). Almost every type of international cuisine is available in Jakarta, the most popular being Chinese, French, Italian, Japanese and Korean sate ajam (broiled, skewered marinated chicken), ajam ungkap (Central Java; deep-fried, marinated chicken), sate lileh (Bali; broiled, skewered fish sticks), ikan acar kuning (Jakarta; lightly marinated fried fish served in a sauce of pickled spices and palm sugar), soto (a soup dish with dumpling, chicken and vegetables), gado-gado (Java; a salad of raw and cooked vegetables with peanut and coconut milk sauce), babi guling (Bali; roast suckling pig) and opor ajam (boiled chicken in coconut milk and light spices). Indonesians like their food highly spiced and the visitor should always bear this in mind. In particular look out for the tiny, fiery hot, red and green peppers often included in salads and vegetable dishes. Seafood is excellent and features highly on menus everywhere (with salt and fresh water fish, lobsters, oysters, prawns, shrimp, squid, shark and crab all available). Coconuts, which are found everywhere, are often used for cooking. Vegetables and fresh fruit, such as bananas, papaya, pineapple and oranges, are available throughout the year; some tropical fruit such as mango, watermelon and papaya is seasonal. A feature of Jakarta are the many warungs (street stalls). Each specialises in its own dish or drink, but travellers are probably best advised not to try them without the advice of an Indonesian resident. There are restaurants in the hotels which, along with many others, serve European, Chinese and Indian food.
Indonesia is a major producer and exporter of coffee and tea, which is available on almost every street corner. Bali produces a delicious rice wine called brem while in Tana Toraja (southern Sulawesi), visitors may wish to sample a Tuak, a famously potent local brew. Local pilsner beer is also available.
Shopping: Favourite buys are batik cloth, woodcarvings and sculpture, silverwork, woven baskets and hats, bamboo articles, krises (small daggers), paintings and woven cloth. At small shops, bartering might be necessary. Shopping hours: Mon-Sun 1000-2100. Most local markets open either very early in the morning or at dusk.
Tipping: Tipping is normal and 10 per cent is customary, except where a service charge is included in the bill. Taxi fees should be rounded up to the nearest number. Small change is rarely given and visitors should carry a supply of their own.
Currency: Rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen. Notes are in denominations of Rp100,000, 50,000, 20,000, 10,000, 5000, 1000, 500 and 100. Coins are in denominations of Rp1000, 500, 100, 50 and 25.
Credit & debit cards: MasterCard, American Express and Visa are widely accepted in Jakarta and the main tourist areas. In more remote areas, it is best to carry cash in small denominations. Check with your credit or debit card company for details of merchant acceptability and other services which may be available.
Travellers cheques: Limited merchant acceptance but can be easily exchanged at banks and larger hotels. To avoid additional exchange rate charges, travellers are advised to take travellers cheques in US Dollars or Pounds Sterling.
For a one week stay:
Tobacco.......200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 100 grams of tobacco
Liquor..........Less than 2 litres of alcohol (opened)
Perfume.......A reasonable quantity
Gifts.............Up to a value of US$100
For a two week stay:
Tobacco.......400 cigarettes or 100 cigars or 200 grams of tobacco
Liquor..........Less than 2 litres of alcohol (opened)
Perfume......A reasonable quantity
Gifts............Up to a value of US$100
For a stay more than two week:
Tobacco......600 cigarettes or 150 cigars or 300 grams of tobacco
Liquor.........Less than 2 litres of alcohol (opened)
Perfume......A reasonable quantity
Gifts............Up to a value of US$100
Note: Cameras must be declared on arrival. Video cameras, radio cassette recorders, binoculars and sport equipment may be imported provided exported on departure. Motion-picture film, video tapes, video laser dics, records and computer software must be screened by the censor board. It is prohibited to import weapons, ammunition, non-prescribed drugs, television sets and other electronic equipment, cordles telephones, fresh fruit, chinese publications and medicines, and pornography.